Chemistry

States of Matter

States of Matter

States of Matter

Everything in this universe is made of matter, such as our earth, sky, air, water, human body, vegetation, whatever we see around us, everything is made of matter.

Everything that is found in this world is found only in the 5 states of matter.

5 States of Matter

  1. Solid
  2. Liquid
  3. Gas
  4. plasma
  5. Bose-Einstein condensate

1. Solid

So all of us know about Solid. The thing that can not be compressed and whatever is the shape and color of it, that thing is kept in the category of solids.

As an example of solid, we can take wood, ice, et cetera.


If we keep the pieces of ice in any container, then it does not cover the entire container space, meaning that there is some space left in it.

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Any solid has its own shape and size. For example, if you put ice in a vessel, then the ice will come in that vessel. If you put ice in a round pot then the ice will be rounded and if you put the ice into a square-shaped pot, then the ice is square.

When we cut any wood, its shape and size will decrease. That is, we can shape the wood the way we want.

Solid matter has its own color, like the color of the gold is yellow and the color of the silver is white.

Chemical Properties


Solid Chemical Bonding is strict and Solid, molecules are proportionally arranged.

Because the molecules of Solid are properly arranged, therefore the solids are never compressed due to the fact that there is no space between its molecules. For example, wood is solid and you can not compress wood.

2. Liquid


The liquid substance itself does not have any color or aroma.  And Liquid has no shape and size of itself. If we want to give an example of a liquid, we can call water and milk as a liquid.

If we talk about liquid, the first thing that comes to our mind is water. Whatever we use every day, such as water, milk, cooldrink, juice, shampoo, it is only liquid.

As the solid has its own color, the liquid does not have its own color or shape. Now you guys would say that Coldrinks has its own color.  So this is not true because when we mix something in the water or mix something in the liquid, then the color of that thing is found in the liquid.

In this picture, water is kept in the glass.  And we can see that the water has filled the entire property of this glass. This means if we put water in any vessel, then it takes shape like that vessel and that spreads everywhere in the pot.

Chemical Properties



As you see in this picture.  Liquid partial is not arranged properly. Because liquid particles are not properly arranged, due to its particle save a lot of space and that is why we can compress the water a little bit.

We can compress liquids a bit, but this can not make anything new. So, compression of liquids does not provide any benefit.

3. Gas

You will know about gas because our environment is made of this gas too. Human, animal, and vegetation take this gas in the breath. If we see an example of gas, the first name comes from oxygen because we are alive because of this gas.

There are so many gases in our environment such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, ozone, methane, etc.

Gas does not have its own size. Gas does not have its own color and gas does not have any aroma. Just like liquid, if we add color or aroma to the gas, then it is colorful and it can cause aroma.

The gas that is in the gas cylinders is called propane or butane. This gas has no aroma of its own, so for this, Ethyl Mercaptan is mixed in so that if the gas is leaking, then we can know and avoid the accident.

Chemical Properties


As you can see in this picture, the particles of gas are going in an opposite direction from one another, which means there is a lot of space between the particles of gas and they are not stable at all.

The gas can be compressed by bringing a certain pressure and temperature. An example of gas compression is the LPG consuming in our kitchen, which is compressed and filled in a cylinder.

4. Plasma

Plasma is the 4th State of Matter. And these are made of iron mixed with electrons. The energy of the plasma is present in the sun and stars in our universe.

 If we continue to heat the gas foam of some substances, then there may be more change in the same state. These substances go from the state of gas to the 4th state of matter, which is called plasma.


To get the plasma state we need to supply more heat. When the heat is high in the right amount then the electron starts coming out from the atom. By which the electrons and positive ions are formed.

Plasma contains both positive and negative particles, but the plasma is neutral. Because both types of particles are equal quantities. Due to having free electrons, substances can conduct electricity in their plasma foam. This plasma property separates them from the gas.

Bose-Einstein condensate

If we talk about the state of matter, then there are three main states like solid, liquid, gas, but many people do not know that there is a total of 5 stages of matter and that is Plasma and Bose-Einstein condensate,


The first prediction about this condition of substance was done by Satyendranath Bose in 1924-25. 

The gas that we cool down in this process must be of gas bosons. When we cool the gas at very low temperatures, then it becomes Bose-Einstein condensate. When we cool the gas - 273.15 degrees Celsius, the atom becomes accumulate and it becomes super atom, and that is what we call Bose-Einstein condensate. As the plasma is called Super Hot State of Matter, Bose-Einstein condensate is also called Super Cool State of Matter.

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