History

Delhi Sultanate

Delhi Sultanate

Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate

India is a huge country.  And many Sultanates have come and gone in this country of India.  Today we will learn about one of this Sultanate Delhi Sultanate.


The beginning of Delhi Sultanate in India was 1206 and it ended in 1526. During the Delhi Sultanate, five Muslim dynasties were ruled. Four out of five descendants were Turks and the last dynasty was Afghani.

Descendants of Delhi Sultanate


In the Delhi Sultanate, mainly five descendants ruled.

Slave dynasty (1206-1290)


Qutb al-din aibak was a slave and he founded the Delhi Sultanate.  Hence this lineage is known as the slave race.


Qutb al-din Aibak was a resident of Turkey. His parents were also Turks. In the area where aibak lived, there was a good way to train boys to sell as slaves.


aibak was a resident of Turkey.  His parents were also Turks. Aibak lived in an area where boys were trained and they were forced to sell as a slave. Aibak also became victims of this system and they were also sold to a businessman. The trader sold aibak to Nishapur's Kazi Fakhruddin Abdul Aziz Koufi. Abdul Aziz trained aibak in military and religion, and when Abdul Aziz died, his children sold the aibak again.


This time aibak bought by Muhammad Ghori. Aibak used to work solely in duty and Muhammad Ghori made him the president of his royal stables, after seeing his devotion to this lord.


When Muhammad Ghori died in 1206, the Delhi Sultanate was established by aibak. Aibak of the Ghulam dynasty ruled from 1206 till 2010, that is, only 4 years. Aibak had constructed a number of buildings but the Qutub Minar is a popular building.

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Khilji dynasty (1290 -1320)


The first ruler of the Khilji dynasty was named Jalaluddin Khilji.  Jalaluddin Khilji had murdered the last ruler Qaiqabad of the Ghulam dynasty in 1290 and started the Khilji dynasty.


Jalaluddin Khilji ruled for six years. Jalaluddin Khilji was killed by his nephew and son-in-law. Juna Khan, son-in-law of Jalaluddin Khilji later became known as Alauddin Khilji. After the murder of Jalaluddin, his son-in-law Alauddin Khilji became Sultan and became the second ruler of Khilji dynasty.


After the formation of Sultan, Allauddin Khilji attacked many states and took him into his sultanate. Allauddin used to behave cruelly with the people of his kingdom.  And also used to disturb people. Even people called them tanasha.


After Alauddin's death, in 1316, his commander Malik Kafur tried to gain power but he did not get the support of Afghan and Persian emirs.

Tughlaq dynasty (1320 -1414)


The Tughlaq dynasty ruled Delhi from 1320 to 1414. The first ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty was Ghazi Malik. Ghazi Malik was originally Turk-Indian. Because his father was a Turk and his mother was Hindu.


Gazi Malik ruled Delhi for five years and settled in a new town of Tughlaqabad near Delhi.

According to the historian, Gazi Malik was killed by his own son for the throne. Ghazi Malik's son was named Juna Khan and he presented himself as Muhammad bin Tughluq. Juna Khan ruled Delhi for 26 years.


Muhammad bin Tughlaq also made some wrong decisions during his rule, as he ordered to make bronze coins instead of silver coins, this decision proved wrong as people started to make the bronze coin at home and started repaying their debts.


Similarly, Muhammad bin Tughlaq changed his capital city from Delhi to one of the places of Maharashtra, Devgiri, as its new capital. Muhammad Tughlaq changed the name of Devgiri to Daulatabad.


And all the people of Delhi forced to come to the capital Daulatabad. While coming to Delhi from Daulatabad, many people died and Daulatabad was barren land because there was no system of drinking water for so many people, due to this, Tughlaq returned to his capital from Daulatabad to Delhi, but this time no people came back to Delhi.


Muhammad Tughlaq died in 1351 during the capture of those people of Gujarat, who rebelled against the Delhi Sultanate.

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Sayyid dynasty (1414 -1451)


The Sayyid Dynasty was from a Turk Raj dynasty who ruled Delhi for 36 years.


With the power of Sayyid dynasty, there has been a deep change in the history of Islam on the Indian subcontinent, There is very little information about the rule of Sayyid dynasty.


Sayyid Dynasty was displaced in 1451 by the Lodi dynasty.

Lodi dynasty (1451 -1526)


The Lodhi dynasty is known as the last dynasty of Delhi Sultanate. The Lodhi dynasty was founded by Bahlul Lodi. Bahlul Lodi was the first Pashtun to rule Delhi.


After the death of Bahlul Lodi, his son Nizam Khan took power and re-nominated himself as Sikandar Lodi. During his lifetime, Sikandar Lodi launched the campaign to destroy the temples.


Sikandar Lodi died in 1517. Then his second son Ibrahim Lodhi assumed power. Ibrahim attacked his elder brother Jalal Khan and killed him.


Ibrahim Lodi was unable to increase his power and he killed his brother so that in the battle of Panipat Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed. Ibrahim Lodi's death abolished the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal empire gave it its place.

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